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【安装配置】nginx+php+mysql+memcache+eaccelerator生产环境文档  

2013-06-02 17:29:28|  分类: Nginx |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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一、从软件的官方网站下载软件包:
mkdir -p /data0/software
cd /data0/software
wget http://sysoev.ru/nginx/nginx-0.8.46.tar.gz
wget http://www.php.net/get/php-5.2.14.tar.gz/from/this/mirror
wget http://php-fpm.org/downloads/php-5.2.14-fpm-0.5.14.diff.gz
wget http://dev.mysql.com/get/Downloads/MySQL-5.5/mysql-5.5.3-m3.tar.gz/from/http://mysql.he.net/
wget http://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/libiconv/libiconv-1.13.1.tar.gz
wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mcrypt/libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz?modtime=1171868460&big_mirror=0"
wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mcrypt/mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz?modtime=1194463373&big_mirror=0"
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/memcache-2.2.5.tgz
wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mhash/mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz?modtime=1175740843&big_mirror=0"
wget ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-8.10.tar.gz
wget http://bart.eaccelerator.net/source/0.9.6.1/eaccelerator-0.9.6.1.tar.bz2
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
wget http://blog.lamphelp.org/soft/linux/nginx_php/imagick/ImageMagick.tar.gz
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/imagick-2.3.0.tgz
二、安装PHP 5.2.14(FastCGI模式)
1、编译安装PHP 5.2.14所需的支持库:
tar zxvf libiconv-1.13.1.tar.gz
cd libiconv-1.13.1/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local
make
make install
cd ../
tar zxvf libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz
cd libmcrypt-2.5.8/
./configure
make
make install
/sbin/ldconfig
cd libltdl/
./configure --enable-ltdl-install
make
make install
cd ../../
tar zxvf mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz
cd mhash-0.9.9.9/
./configure
make
make install
cd ../
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.la /usr/lib/libmcrypt.la
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.a /usr/lib/libmhash.a
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.la /usr/lib/libmhash.la
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so /usr/lib/libmhash.so
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1
ln -s /usr/local/bin/libmcrypt-config /usr/bin/libmcrypt-config
tar zxvf mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz
cd mcrypt-2.6.8/
/sbin/ldconfig
./configure
make
make install
cd ../
2、编译安装PHP(FastCGI模式)
tar zxvf php-5.2.14.tar.gz
gzip -cd php-5.2.14-fpm-0.5.14.diff.gz | patch -d php-5.2.14 -p1
cd php-5.2.14/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/php --with-config-file-path=/usr/local/webserver/php/etc --with-mysql=/usr/local/mysql --with-mysqli=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_config --with-iconv-dir=/usr/local --with-freetype-dir --with-jpeg-dir --with-png-dir --with-zlib --with-libxml-dir=/usr --enable-xml --disable-rpath --enable-discard-path --enable-safe-mode --enable-bcmath --enable-shmop --enable-sysvsem --enable-inline-optimization --with-curl --with-curlwrappers --enable-mbregex --enable-fastcgi --enable-fpm --enable-force-cgi-redirect --enable-mbstring --with-mcrypt --with-gd --enable-gd-native-ttf --with-openssl --with-mhash --enable-pcntl --enable-sockets --with-ldap --with-ldap-sasl --with-xmlrpc --enable-zip --enable-soap
make ZEND_EXTRA_LIBS='-liconv'
make install
cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
cd ../
3、编译安装PHP5扩展模块
tar zxvf memcache-2.2.5.tgz
cd memcache-2.2.5/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../
tar jxvf eaccelerator-0.9.6.1.tar.bz2
cd eaccelerator-0.9.6.1/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure --enable-eaccelerator=shared --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../
tar zxvf PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
cd PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config --with-pdo-mysql=/usr/local/mysql
make
make install
cd ../
tar zxvf ImageMagick.tar.gz
cd ImageMagick-6.5.1-2/
./configure
make
make install
cd ../
tar zxvf imagick-2.3.0.tgz
cd imagick-2.3.0/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../
4、修改php.ini文件
  手工修改:查找/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini中的extension_dir = "./"
  修改为extension_dir = "/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/"
  并在此行后增加以下几行,然后保存:
  extension = "memcache.so"
  extension = "pdo_mysql.so"
  extension = "imagick.so"
  再查找output_buffering = Off
  修改为output_buffering = On
  再查找 ; cgi.fix_pathinfo=0
  修改为cgi.fix_pathinfo=0,即取消注释,使生效,防止Nginx文件类型错误解析漏洞。
  自动修改:若嫌手工修改麻烦,可执行以下shell命令,自动完成对php.ini文件的修改:
sed -i 's#extension_dir = "./"#extension_dir = "/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/"\nextension = "memcache.so"\nextension = "pdo_mysql.so"\nextension = "imagick.so"\n#' /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i 's#output_buffering = Off#output_buffering = On#' /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i "s#; always_populate_raw_post_data = On#always_populate_raw_post_data = On#g" /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i "s#; cgi.fix_pathinfo=0#cgi.fix_pathinfo=0#g" /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
  6、配置eAccelerator加速PHP:
mkdir -p /usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache
vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
  按shift+g键跳到配置文件的最末尾,加上以下配置信息:
引用
[eaccelerator]
zend_extension="/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/eaccelerator.so"
eaccelerator.shm_size="64"
eaccelerator.cache_dir="/usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache"
eaccelerator.enable="1"
eaccelerator.optimizer="1"
eaccelerator.check_mtime="1"
eaccelerator.debug="0"
eaccelerator.filter=""
eaccelerator.shm_max="0"
eaccelerator.shm_ttl="3600"
eaccelerator.shm_prune_period="3600"
eaccelerator.shm_only="0"
eaccelerator.compress="1"
eaccelerator.compress_level="9"
7、创建www用户和组,以及供blog.lamphelp.org和www.lamphelp.org两个虚拟主机使用的目录:
/usr/sbin/groupadd www
/usr/sbin/useradd -g www www
mkdir -p /data0/htdocs/blog
chmod +w /data0/htdocs/blog
chown -R www:www /data0/htdocs/blog
mkdir -p /data0/htdocs/www
chmod +w /data0/htdocs/www
chown -R www:www /data0/htdocs/www
  8、创建php-fpm配置文件(php-fpm是为PHP打的一个FastCGI管理补丁,可以平滑变更php.ini配置而无需重启php-cgi):
  在/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/目录中创建php-fpm.conf文件:
rm -f /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf
vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf
  输入以下内容(如果您安装 Nginx + PHP 用于程序调试,请将以下的<value name="display_errors">0</value>改为<value name="display_errors">1</value>,以便显示PHP错误信息,否则,Nginx 会报状态为500的空白错误页):
<?xml version="1.0" ?>
< configuration>
  All relative paths in this config are relative to php's install prefix
  <section name="global_options">
    Pid file
    <value name="pid_file">/usr/local/webserver/php/logs/php-fpm.pid</value>
    Error log file
    <value name="error_log">/usr/local/webserver/php/logs/php-fpm.log</value>
    Log level
    <value name="log_level">notice</value>
    When this amount of php processes exited with SIGSEGV or SIGBUS ...
    <value name="emergency_restart_threshold">10</value>
    ... in a less than this interval of time, a graceful restart will be initiated.
    Useful to work around accidental curruptions in accelerator's shared memory.
    <value name="emergency_restart_interval">1m</value>
    Time limit on waiting child's reaction on signals from master
    <value name="process_control_timeout">5s</value>
    Set to 'no' to debug fpm
    <value name="daemonize">yes</value>
  </section>
  <workers>
    <section name="pool">
      Name of pool. Used in logs and stats.
      <value name="name">default</value>
      Address to accept fastcgi requests on.
      Valid syntax is 'ip.ad.re.ss:port' or just 'port' or '/path/to/unix/socket'
      <value name="listen_address">127.0.0.1:9000</value>
      <value name="listen_options">
        Set listen(2) backlog
        <value name="backlog">-1</value>
        Set permissions for unix socket, if one used.
        In Linux read/write permissions must be set in order to allow connections from web server.
        Many BSD-derrived systems allow connections regardless of permissions.
        <value name="owner"></value>
        <value name="group"></value>
        <value name="mode">0666</value>
      </value>
      Additional php.ini defines, specific to this pool of workers.
      <value name="php_defines">
        <value name="sendmail_path">/usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i</value>
        <value name="display_errors">0</value>
      </value>
      Unix user of processes
      <value name="user">www</value>
      Unix group of processes
      <value name="group">www</value>
      Process manager settings
      <value name="pm">
        Sets style of controling worker process count.
        Valid values are 'static' and 'apache-like'
        <value name="style">static</value>
        Sets the limit on the number of simultaneous requests that will be served.
        Equivalent to Apache MaxClients directive.
        Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN environment in original php.fcgi
        Used with any pm_style.
        <value name="max_children">128</value>
        Settings group for 'apache-like' pm style
        <value name="apache_like">
          Sets the number of server processes created on startup.
          Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
          <value name="StartServers">20</value>
          Sets the desired minimum number of idle server processes.
          Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
          <value name="MinSpareServers">5</value>
          Sets the desired maximum number of idle server processes.
          Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected
          <value name="MaxSpareServers">35</value>
        </value>
      </value>
      The timeout (in seconds) for serving a single request after which the worker process will be terminated
      Should be used when 'max_execution_time' ini option does not stop script execution for some reason
      '0s' means 'off'
      <value name="request_terminate_timeout">0s</value>
      The timeout (in seconds) for serving of single request after which a php backtrace will be dumped to slow.log file
      '0s' means 'off'
      <value name="request_slowlog_timeout">0s</value>
      The log file for slow requests
      <value name="slowlog">logs/slow.log</value>
      Set open file desc rlimit
      <value name="rlimit_files">65535</value>
      Set max core size rlimit
      <value name="rlimit_core">0</value>
      Chroot to this directory at the start, absolute path
      <value name="chroot"></value>
      Chdir to this directory at the start, absolute path
      <value name="chdir"></value>
      Redirect workers' stdout and stderr into main error log.
      If not set, they will be redirected to /dev/null, according to FastCGI specs
      <value name="catch_workers_output">yes</value>
      How much requests each process should execute before respawn.
      Useful to work around memory leaks in 3rd party libraries.
      For endless request processing please specify 0
      Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS
      <value name="max_requests">1024</value>
      Comma separated list of ipv4 addresses of FastCGI clients that allowed to connect.
      Equivalent to FCGI_WEB_SERVER_ADDRS environment in original php.fcgi (5.2.2+)
      Makes sense only with AF_INET listening socket.
      <value name="allowed_clients">127.0.0.1</value>
      Pass environment variables like LD_LIBRARY_PATH
      All $VARIABLEs are taken from current environment
      <value name="environment">
        <value name="HOSTNAME">$HOSTNAME</value>
        <value name="PATH">/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin</value>
        <value name="TMP">/tmp</value>
        <value name="TMPDIR">/tmp</value>
        <value name="TEMP">/tmp</value>
        <value name="OSTYPE">$OSTYPE</value>
        <value name="MACHTYPE">$MACHTYPE</value>
        <value name="MALLOC_CHECK_">2</value>
      </value>
    </section>
  </workers>
< /configuration>
  9、启动php-cgi进程,监听127.0.0.1的9000端口,进程数为128(如果服务器内存小于3GB,可以只开启64个进程),用户为www:
ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm start
  注:/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm还有其他参数,包括:start|stop|quit|restart|reload|logrotate,修改php.ini后不重启php-cgi,重新加载配置文件使用reload。
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  三、安装Nginx 0.8.46
  1、安装Nginx所需的pcre库:
tar zxvf pcre-8.10.tar.gz
cd pcre-8.10/
./configure
make && make install
cd ../
  2、安装Nginx
tar zxvf nginx-0.8.46.tar.gz
cd nginx-0.8.46/
./configure --user=www --group=www --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/nginx --with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_ssl_module
make && make install
cd ../
  3、创建Nginx日志目录
mkdir -p /data1/logs
chmod +w /data1/logs
chown -R www:www /data1/logs
  4、创建Nginx配置文件
  ①、在/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/目录中创建nginx.conf文件:
rm -f /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
  输入以下内容:
引用
user  www www;
worker_processes 8;
error_log  /data1/logs/nginx_error.log  crit;
pid        /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid;
#Specifies the value for maximum file descriptors that can be opened by this process.
worker_rlimit_nofile 65535;
events
{
  use epoll;
  worker_connections 65535;
}
http
{
  include       mime.types;
  default_type  application/octet-stream;
  #charset  gb2312;
      
  server_names_hash_bucket_size 128;
  client_header_buffer_size 32k;
  large_client_header_buffers 4 32k;
  client_max_body_size 8m;
      
  sendfile on;
  tcp_nopush     on;
  keepalive_timeout 60;
  tcp_nodelay on;
  fastcgi_connect_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_send_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_read_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_buffer_size 64k;
  fastcgi_buffers 4 64k;
  fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 128k;
  fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 128k;
  gzip on;
  gzip_min_length  1k;
  gzip_buffers     4 16k;
  gzip_http_version 1.0;
  gzip_comp_level 2;
  gzip_types       text/plain application/x-javascript text/css application/xml;
  gzip_vary on;
  #limit_zone  crawler  $binary_remote_addr  10m;
  server
  {
    listen       80;
    server_name  blog.lamphelp.org;
    index index.html index.htm index.php;
    root  /data0/htdocs/blog;
    #limit_conn   crawler  20;   
                             
    location ~ .*\.(php|php5)?$
    {      
      #fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
      fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
      fastcgi_index index.php;
      include fcgi.conf;
    }
   
    location ~ .*\.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|swf)$
    {
      expires      30d;
    }
    location ~ .*\.(js|css)?$
    {
      expires      1h;
    }   
    log_format  access  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
              '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
              '"$http_user_agent" $http_x_forwarded_for';
    access_log  /data1/logs/access.log  access;
      }
  server
  {
    listen       80;
    server_name  www.lamphelp.org;
    index index.html index.htm index.php;
    root  /data0/htdocs/www;
    location ~ .*\.(php|php5)?$
    {      
      #fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
      fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
      fastcgi_index index.php;
      include fcgi.conf;
    }
    log_format  wwwlogs  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
               '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
               '"$http_user_agent" $http_x_forwarded_for';
    access_log  /data1/logs/wwwlogs.log  wwwlogs;
  }
  server
  {
    listen  80;
    server_name  status.blog.lamphelp.org;
    location / {
    stub_status on;
    access_log   off;
    }
  }
}
  ②、在/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/目录中创建fcgi.conf文件:
vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/fcgi.conf
  输入以下内容:
引用
fastcgi_param  GATEWAY_INTERFACE  CGI/1.1;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_SOFTWARE    nginx;
fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING       $query_string;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_METHOD     $request_method;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_TYPE       $content_type;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_LENGTH     $content_length;
fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME    $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        $fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_URI        $request_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_URI       $document_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_ROOT      $document_root;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;
fastcgi_param  REMOTE_ADDR        $remote_addr;
fastcgi_param  REMOTE_PORT        $remote_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_ADDR        $server_addr;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME        $server_name;
# PHP only, required if PHP was built with --enable-force-cgi-redirect
fastcgi_param  REDIRECT_STATUS    200;
  5、启动Nginx
ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  四、配置开机自动启动Nginx + PHP
vi /etc/rc.local
  在末尾增加以下内容:
引用
ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm start
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  五、优化Linux内核参数
vi /etc/sysctl.conf
  在末尾增加以下内容:
引用
# Add
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 65536
net.core.netdev_max_backlog =  32768
net.core.somaxconn = 32768
net.core.wmem_default = 8388608
net.core.rmem_default = 8388608
net.core.rmem_max = 16777216
net.core.wmem_max = 16777216
net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 0
net.ipv4.tcp_synack_retries = 2
net.ipv4.tcp_syn_retries = 2
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
#net.ipv4.tcp_tw_len = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_mem = 94500000 915000000 927000000
net.ipv4.tcp_max_orphans = 3276800
#net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
#net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 120
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024  65535
  使配置立即生效:
/sbin/sysctl -p
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  六、在不停止Nginx服务的情况下平滑变更Nginx配置
  1、修改/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf配置文件后,请执行以下命令检查配置文件是否正确:
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx -t
  如果屏幕显示以下两行信息,说明配置文件正确:
  the configuration file /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is ok
  the configuration file /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf was tested successfully
  2、平滑重启:
  ①、对于Nginx 0.8.x版本,现在平滑重启Nginx配置非常简单,执行以下命令即可:
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx -s reload
  ②、对于Nginx 0.8.x之前的版本,平滑重启稍微麻烦一些,按照以下步骤进行即可。输入以下命令查看Nginx主进程号:
ps -ef | grep "nginx: master process" | grep -v "grep" | awk -F ' ' '{print $2}'
  屏幕显示的即为Nginx主进程号,例如:
  6302
  这时,执行以下命令即可使修改过的Nginx配置文件生效:
kill -HUP 6302
  或者无需这么麻烦,找到Nginx的Pid文件:
kill -HUP `cat /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid`
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  七、编写每天定时切割Nginx日志的脚本
  1、创建脚本/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh
vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh
  输入以下内容:
引用
#!/bin/bash
# This script run at 00:00
# The Nginx logs path
logs_path="/usr/local/webserver/nginx/logs/"
mkdir -p ${logs_path}$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y")/$(date -d "yesterday" +"%m")/
mv ${logs_path}access.log ${logs_path}$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y")/$(date -d "yesterday" +"%m")/access_$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y%m%d").log
kill -USR1 `cat /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid`
  2、设置crontab,每天凌晨00:00切割nginx访问日志
crontab -e
  输入以下内容:
引用
00 00 * * * /bin/bash  /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh


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